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Fluid, electrolytes, and acid-base imbalances quiz 1

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1.

Which of the following statements is incorrect?

2 / 20

2. Which of the following would be expected to cause a decrease in extracellular fluid potassium concentration (hypokalemia) at least in part by stimulating potassium uptake into the cells?

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3. In a patient with sodium imbalances, the primary clinical manifestations are related to alterations in what body system?

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4. Which change would you expect to find in a dehydrated person deprived of water for 24 hours?

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5. While caring for an 84-year-old patient, the nurse monitors the patient’s fluid and electrolyte balance, recognizing what as a normal change of aging?

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6. A patient who has a large amount of carbon dioxide in the blood also has what in the blood?

7 / 20

7. What is an example of an appropriate IV solution to treat an extracellular fluid volume deficit?

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8. Which of the following statements is incorrect?

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9. With which disorder is hyperkalemia often associated?

10 / 20

10. To provide free water and intracellular fluid hydration for a patient with acute gastroenteritis who is NPO, the nurse would expect administration of which infusion?

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11. A patient is scheduled to have a tunneled catheter placed for administration of chemotherapy for breast cancer. When preparing the patient for the catheter insertion, what does the nurse explain about this method of chemotherapy administration?

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12. Which of the following would tend to cause hypokalemia by shifting potassium from the extracellular fluid into the intracellular fluid?

13 / 20

13.

What stimulates aldosterone secretion from the adrenal cortex?

14 / 20

14.

A patient with cirrhosis experiences a doubling of his serum creatinine over a 6-month period after sustained heavy ingestion of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) for his arthritis. Which of the following is the best explanation for his increased serum creatinine?

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15. Which of the following statements is not correct?

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16. A common collaborative problem related to both hyperkalemia and hypokalemia is which potential complication?

17 / 20

17. A patient with chronic kidney disease has hyperphosphatemia. What is a commonly associated electrolyte imbalance?

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18. What is the normal pH range of the blood, and what ratio of base to acid does this reflect?

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19. Which patient is at risk for hypernatremia?

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20.

All of the following changes would tend to cause interstitial fluid edema in a tissue EXCEPT one. Which one is the EXCEPTION?

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Fluid, electrolytes, and acid-base imbalances quiz 2

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1. One of the dangers of treating hypernatremia is____

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2. One of the best indicators of renal function is___

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3. An isotonic solution that contains electrolytes similar to the concentration used in plasma is___

4 / 15

4. The average daily urinary output in an adult is___

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5. The nurse expects that a decrease in serum osmolality would occur with___

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6. The nurse is reviewing a patient’s morning laboratory results. Which result is of greatest concern?

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7. A nurse is directed to administer a hypotonic intravenous solution. Looking at the following labeled solutions, she should choose___

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8. The nurse should expect that a patient with mild fluid volume excess would be prescribed a diuretic that blocks sodium reabsorption in the distal tubule, such as___

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9. Nursing intervention for a patient with a diagnosis of hyponatremia includes all of the following except___

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10. A clinical manifestation not found in hypovolemia is___

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11. The nurse notes that a patient’s urine osmolality is 980 mOsm/kg. The nurse knows to assess for the possible cause of___

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12. Laboratory findings consistent with hypovolemia in a female would include all of the following except___

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13. A febrile patient’s fluid output is in excess of normal because of diaphoresis. The nurse should plan fluid replacement based on the knowledge that insensible losses in an afebrile person are normally not greater than___

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14. A patient’s serum sodium concentration is within the normal range. The nurse estimates that the serum osmolality should be___

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15. A patient is hemorrhaging from multiple trauma sites. The nurse expects that compensatory mechanisms associated with hypovolemia would cause all of the following symptoms except___

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Fluid, electrolytes, and acid-base imbalances quiz 3

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1. The nursing assessment for a patient with metabolic alkalosis includes evaluation of laboratory data for all of the following except___

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2. If a patient has severe hyperkalemia, it is possible to administer calcium gluconate intravenously to___

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3. Choose the condition that exhibits blood values with a low pH and a high PCO2.

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4. A patient is admitted with a diagnosis of renal failure. He also mentions that he has had stomach distress and has ingested numerous antacid tablets over the past 2 days. His blood pressure is 110/70 mm Hg, his face is flushed, and he is experiencing generalized weakness. Choose the most likely magnesium (Mg+) value for this patient.

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5. Cardiac arrest will probably occur with a serum calcium level of____

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6. A patient complains of tingling in his fingers. He has positive Trousseau’s and Chvostek’s signs. He says that he feels depressed. Choose the most likely serum calcium (Ca+) value for this patient

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7. A clinical indication of hyperphosphatemia is___

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8. The most characteristic manifestation of hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia is___

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9. Choose the condition that exhibits blood values with a low pH and a low plasma bicarbonate concentration.

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10. A patient is admitted who has had severe vomiting for 24 hours. She states that she is exhausted and weak. The results of an admitting electrocardiogram (ECG) show flat T waves and ST-segment depression. Choose the most likely potassium (K+) value for this patient.

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11. The most common buffer system in the body is the___

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12. To supplement a diet with foods high in potassium, the nurse should recommend the addition of___

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13. Management of hypocalcemia includes all of the following actions except administration of___

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14. The ECG change that is specific to hypokalemia is___

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15. Cardiac effects of hyperkalemia are usually present when the serum potassium level reaches___

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