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Assessment and management of patients with hypertension quizzes
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1. What does the nursing responsibility in the management of the patient with hypertensive urgency include?
D: Hypertensive urgencies are often treated with oral drugs on an outpatient basis, but it is important for the patient to be seen by a HCP within 24 hours to evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment. Hourly urine measurements, titration of IV drugs, and Electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring are indicated for hypertensive emergencies.
2 / 16
2. What causes most organ damage in hypertension?
B: Elevated BP causes endothelial damage, which causes the inner lining of arterioles to become thickened and stiffened and affects coronary circulation, cerebral circulation, peripheral vessels, and renal and retinal blood vessels. The narrowed vessels lead to ischemia and_x000D_ultimately to damage of these organs.
3 / 16
3. The patient who is being admitted has had a history of uncontrolled hypertension. High systemic vascular resistance (SVR) is most likely to cause damage to which organ?
B: The increased systemic vascular resistance (SVR) of hypertension directly increases the workload of the heart, and heart failure occurs when the heart can no longer pump effectively against the increased resistance. The heart may be indirectly damaged by atherosclerotic changes in the blood vessels, as are the brain, retina, and kidney.
4 / 16
4. What are nonmodifiable risk factors for primary hypertension (select all that apply)?
A, C, D, E: Hypertension progresses with increasing age. It is more prevalent in men before early middle age and above the age of 64 years in women. Blacks have a higher incidence of hypertension than do whites._x000D_Children and siblings of patients with hypertension should be screened and taught about healthy lifestyles.
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5. A patient diagnosed with secondary hypertension asks nurse Abrefi why it is called secondary and not primary. What is the best explanation for the nurse to provide?
C: Secondary hypertension has an underlying cause that will be treated, in contrast to primary or essential hypertension, which has no single known cause. Isolated systolic hypertension occurs when the systolic BP (SBP) is consistently equal to or over 130 mm Hg and the diastolic BP_x000D_(DBP) is consistently equal to or over at 80 mm Hg.
6 / 16
6. Which manifestation is an indication that a patient is having hypertensive emergency?
C: Hypertensive emergency, a type of hypertensive crisis, is a situation in which a patient’s BP is severely elevated with evidence of acute target organ disease (e.g., cerebrovascular, cardiovascular, renal, or retinal). The neurologic manifestations are often similar to the presentation of a stroke_x000D_but do not show the focal or lateralizing symptoms of stroke._x000D_Hypertensive crises are defined by the degree of organ damage and how rapidly the BP rises, not by specific BP measurements. A hypertensive urgency is a less severe crisis, in which a patient’s BP becomes severely elevated over hours or days but there is no evidence of target organ damage.
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7. A patient with stage 2 hypertension who is taking chlorothiazide (Diuril) and lisinopril (Zestril) has prazosin (Minipress) added to the medication regimen. What is most important for the nurse to teach the patient to do?
B: Chlorothiazide is a thiazide diuretic that causes orthostatic hypotension. Prazosin is an α-adrenergic blocker that causes dilation of arterioles and veins and causes orthostatic hypotension. The patient may feel dizzy, weak, and faint when assuming an upright position after sitting or lying down and should be taught to change positions slowly, avoid standing for long periods, do leg exercises to increase venous return, and lie or sit down when dizziness occurs. Direct-acting vasodilators often cause fluid retention; dry mouth may occur with diuretic use, and centrally acting α- and β-blockers may cause bradycardia.
8 / 16
8. A 38-year-old man is treated for hypertension with triamterene and hydrochlorothiazide and metoprolol (Lopressor). Four months after his last clinic visit, his BP returns to pretreatment levels, and he admits he has not been taking his medication regularly. What is the nurse’s best response to this patient?
C: Sexual dysfunction, which can occur with many of the antihypertensive drugs, including thiazide and potassium-sparing diuretics and β-adrenergic blockers, can be a major reason that a male patient does not adhere to his treatment regimen. It is helpful for the nurse to raise the subject because sexual problems may be easier for the patient to discuss and handle once it has been explained that the drug may be the source of the problem.
9 / 16
9. What early manifestation(s) is the patient with primary hypertension likely to report?
A: Hypertension is often asymptomatic, especially if it is mild or moderate, and has been called the silent killer. The absence of symptoms often leads to noncompliance with medical treatment and a lack of concern about the disease in patients. With severe hypertension, symptoms may include fatigue, palpitations, angina, dyspnea, and dizziness.
10 / 16
10. What is included in the correct technique for BP measurements?
D: Correct technique in measuring BP includes taking and averaging 2 or more readings at least 1 minute apart. Initially BP measurements should be taken in both arms to detect any differences. If there is a difference, the arm with the higher reading should be used for all subsequent BP readings. The patient may be supine or sitting. The important points are that the arm being used is at the heart level and the cuff needs to fit snugly.
11 / 16
11. What is the primary BP effect of β-adrenergic blockers, such as atenolol (Tenormin)?
C: Cardioselective β-adrenergic blockers decrease CO, reduce sympathetic vasoconstrictor tone, and decrease renin secretion by kidneys. Calcium channel blockers reduce BP by causing blocked movement of calcium into cells, which causes vasodilation of arterioles. Spironolactone blocks the effect of aldosterone. Central adrenergic antagonists, such as clonidine (Catapres) inhibit sympathetic outflow from the central nervous system (CNS).
12 / 16
12. Dietary teaching that includes eating dietary sources of potassium is indicated for the hypertensive patient taking which drug?
D: Hydrochlorothiazide is a thiazide diuretic that causes sodium and potassium loss through the kidneys. High-potassium foods should be included in the diet, or potassium supplements may be used to prevent hypokalemia. Enalapril and spironolactone may cause hyperkalemia by inhibiting the action of aldosterone, and potassium supplements should not be used by patients taking these drugs. As a combined α/β-blocker, labetalol does not affect potassium levels.
13 / 16
13. A 78-year-old patient is admitted with a BP of 180/98 mm Hg. Which age-related physical changes may contribute to this patient’s hypertension (select all that apply)?
A, C, E, F: The age-related changes that contribute to hypertension include decreased renal function, increased peripheral vascular resistance, increased collagen and stiffness of the myocardium, and decreased elasticity in large arteries from arteriosclerosis. The baroreceptor reflexes are blunted. The adrenergic receptor sensitivity and renin response are both decreased with aging.
14 / 16
14. Which drugs are most commonly used to treat hypertensive crises?
D: Hypertensive crises are treated with IV administration of antihypertensive drugs, including the vasodilators sodium nitroprusside, fenoldopam, and nicardipine; adrenergic blockers, such as labetalol, esmolol, and phentolamine; the ACE inhibitor enalaprilat; the calcium channel blocker clevidipine; nitroglycerin for myocardial ischemia; hydralazine with other medications; and oral captopril. Sodium nitroprusside is the most effective parenteral drug for hypertensive emergencies.
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15. What should nurse Benewaa emphasize when teaching a patient who is newly prescribed clonidine (Catapres)?
A: Centrally acting α-adrenergic blockers may cause severe rebound hypertension if the drugs are abruptly discontinued, and patients should be taught about this effect because many are not consistently compliant with drug therapy. Diuretics should be taken early in the day to prevent nocturia. The profound orthostatic hypotension that occurs with first-dose peripheral acting α-adrenergic blockers can be prevented by taking the initial dose at bedtime. Aspirin use may decrease the effectiveness of ACE inhibitors.
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16. A patient has a BP of 222/148 mm Hg and confusion, nausea, and vomiting. Which goal should the nurse try to achieve by titrating medications?
A: Initially, the treatment goal in hypertensive emergencies is to reduce the mean arterial pressure (MAP) by no more than 20% to 25% in the first hour, with further gradual reduction over the next 24 hours. In this case, the MAP is 222 + 2(148)/3 = 172, so decreasing it by 25% equals 129. Lowering the BP too far or too fast may cause a stroke, myocardial infarction (MI), or renal failure. Only when the patient has an aortic dissection, angina, or signs of an ischemic stroke does the SBP have to be lowered to 100 to 120 mm Hg or less as quickly as possible.
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